Association of TGF-B1 gene expression with breast cancer risk in a sample of Iraqi women


Author(s): Muhammad Muaed Yasser* and Mohammed Abd ALmalik

Breast carcinoma is the most prevalent cancer-related cause of death in women, and metastasis is the main factor in morbidity. The total number of new cases of cancer in Iraq during the year 2019 was 35,864. TGF (Transforming Growth Factor) is a multifunctional cytokine whose abnormal expression is linked to cancer development and metastasis. The tumor growth factor TGF?β is a major component of Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), immune evasion, and metastasis during cancer progression. It is produced by a variety of cells within the Tumor Microenvironment (TME), and it is responsible for regulating the activity of cells in this milieu. TGF-b is also central to immune suppression within the tumor microenvironment, and recent studies have revealed roles in tumor immune evasion and poor responses to cancer immunotherapy. Then, focusing on cancer, we discuss the roles of TGF-b signaling in distinct immune cell types and how this knowledge is being leveraged to unleash the immune system against the tumor.

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Awards Nomination

Editors List

  • Prof. Elhadi Miskeen

    Obstetrics and Gynaecology Faculty of Medicine, University of Bisha, Saudi Arabia

  • Ahmed Hussien Alshewered

    University of Basrah College of Medicine, Iraq

  • Sudhakar Tummala

    Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering SRM University – AP, Andhra Pradesh




  • Alphonse Laya

    Supervisor of Biochemistry Lab and PhD. students of Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemis


  • Fava Maria Giovanna


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