Author(s): Noaman Abdul Razzaq Almallah*, Azher Sebieh Alzubaidi and Manwar Al-Naqqash

Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) is a type of breast cancer in which Estrogen Receptor (ER), Progesterone Receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 are all negative. Account for 10% to 15%, and it is more common among young and/or black women, and is classically associated with high-grade cancers. The study aimed to describe different clinicopathological parameters and analyse their effect on disease free survival in stage (I, II and III) triple negative breast cancer Iraqi women. A hospital based retrospective analytic study was conducted on 97 triple negative breast cancer Iraqi women. A total 1270 female patients with breast cancer diagnosed at oncology teaching hospital from January the 1st 2014 to December the 31st 2017. About 109 women we identified tumours lacking immunohistochemical expression of ER, PR and HER2 (Triple-Negative Status) only were included in our study. The data collected are demographic data (age, family history of breast cancer, body mass index), and pathological data (tumour histopathological type, lymphovascular invasion, tumour grade, and size, lymph node involvement, distant metastasis (M stage) at time of diagnosis). The median age of 50 years, the body mass index (BMI) mean was 29.8 ± 5.14 kg/m2. The predominant histological type was infiltrative ductal carcinoma (89.9%), grade II was the most common one (52.9%). Lymphovascular invasion was found in 61% of the pathological reports. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given in (89.7%). The median follows up period of our patients (stage I, II and III) was 12 months ranging from (2-46) months. The overall disease free survival mean was (33.2) months and the median was (36) months. Approximately, 20.6% of stage (I, II and III) developed recurrence after diagnosis; with visceral metastasis was the most common one. Tumour size as a risk factor can significantly affect the disease free survival, while patient age, body mass index, lymphovascular invasion, tumour grade and lymph nodes involvement have no statistical significance. Triple negative breast cancer is an aggressive disease with the most of the events (local recurrence, distance metastasis) occur in the first 3 years of follow up, and the most common type was visceral metastasis. Tumour size as a poor prognostic factor significantly shortens the disease free survival, while all the other clinicopathological data have no statistical significance.

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Awards Nomination

Editors List

  • Prof. Elhadi Miskeen

    Obstetrics and Gynaecology Faculty of Medicine, University of Bisha, Saudi Arabia

  • Ahmed Hussien Alshewered

    University of Basrah College of Medicine, Iraq

  • Sudhakar Tummala

    Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering SRM University – AP, Andhra Pradesh




  • Alphonse Laya

    Supervisor of Biochemistry Lab and PhD. students of Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemis


  • Fava Maria Giovanna


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