Research Article - Onkologia i Radioterapia ( 2023) Volume 17, Issue 6

Investigating the scope of anticancer drugs for cancer treatment

Erina Suneja*
Assistant Professor, Department of Sciences, Chandigarh Group of Colleges, Mohali, Chandigarh, India
*Corresponding Author:
Erina Suneja, Assistant Professor, Department of Sciences, Chandigarh Group of Colleges, Mohali, Chandigarh, India, Email:

Received: 25-May-2023, Manuscript No. OAR-23-100067; Accepted: 20-Jun-2023, Pre QC No. OAR-23-100067 (PQ); Editor assigned: 28-May-2023, Pre QC No. OAR-23-100067 (PQ); Reviewed: 02-Jun-2023, QC No. OAR-23-100067 (Q); Revised: 18-Jun-2023, Manuscript No. OAR-23-100067 (R); Published: 23-Jun-2023


In both industrialised and developing nations, cancer is a significant public health concern. The unnatural rise of batteries in corpses is what causes death, and cancer sufferers' numbers are rising daily around the world. Numerous drugs are on the market to treat the various forms of cancer, but none have been proven to be both totally effective and safe. Numerous natural substances and their analogues have been found to be effective anticancer agents, and new anti-cancer properties in various plants are being discovered daily. The process of finding a new treatment is time-consuming and difficult. Therefore, by synthesising novel by-products based on active pharmacophore models; drug resistance & solubility; certain natural products and their analogues can have their anticancer potency.


natural products, plants, medicinal plants, chemotherapy, cancer, cancer cells, herbal medicine


Since ancient times, numerous illnesses have been treated using natural products, particularly plants. Since antiquity, terrestrial plants have been employed in Egypt, China, India, and Greece as medicine, number of contemporary medications have been derived from them. Cancer is one of the illnesses that affect people, and it is perhaps the most common genetic ailment that may be treated with herbal remedies. Millions of people are given cancer diagnoses every year, and the majority of them pass away. Cancer is the uncontrolled cell development in our bodies [1].

Kill all healthy cells. By correcting this imbalance, the cancer can be treated. These cells are produced as a result of substance variations. Despite spending tens of billions of dollars on research, we still do not fully comprehend what cancer is? Cancer is a disease that affects millions of people each year and kills them. Approximately 2% to 3% of all annual deaths reported worldwide, according to the American Cancer Society, are caused by cancer [2]. Thus, 3500 million tribes worldwide are carefully preyed upon by cancer each year. It is possible to treat cancer with a number of chemotherapypreventive drugs, but their toxicity makes this impossible [3]. People in various regions were influenced by the rising costs of traditional therapies (such as chemotherapy and radiation) and the avoidance of cures for solid growth that actually worked [4].

Literature Review

Cancer and Tlassification

A malignant disease that can affect various bodily parts, cancer is a generalised application of malignant malady schemes. These diseases are distinguished by an uncontrolled and rapid assembly of aberrant cells, which may aggregate to form a growth or tumour or propagate throughout the body, causing abnormal growth at other locations [5]. The process could continue until it kills the organism if it is not stopped. Surgery, radiation, and medication are the three primary types of treatment for persons with stageconcordant cancer (cancer chemotherapeutic agents). A Cancer chemotherapy drug frequently offer symptomatic relief for a short period of time, life extension, and occasionally cures. A lot of work has been put into the synthesis of prospective anticancer medicines recently [6]. Many Natural products are giving such templates for prospective chemotherapeutic medicines [7]. A remarkable variety of new structures have been produced by recent research on tumour-inhibiting combinations of action.

Cancer Types

• Blood and lymphatic system cancer:-Hodgkin's disease leukaemia, lymphomas, multiple myeloma, and Wald Enstrom’s disease are among the diseases.

• Skin Cancers: Malignant Melanoma.

• Cancers of the Digestive Systems:-Oesophageal cancer, stomach cancer, pancreatic cancer, liver cancer, colon rectal cancer, anal cancer.

• Cancers of the Urinary System: Kidney cancer, bladder cancer, testicular cancer, prostate cancer.

• Cancers in women include chorio-carcinoma, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, and gynaecological cancer.

• Other cancers include Brain cancer, bone cancer, characinoid cancer, nasopharyngeal

Cancer cells have an overly active growth-signalling pathway, which makes them vulnerable to a variety of medications that target growth-signalling chemicals and/or processes involved in cellular replication and proliferation [8]. However, because these chemicals also stimulate normal cells, the stamp is selective rather than exclusive, leading to the unintended side effects associated with these medicines. Particularly vulnerable are cells that are normally actively dividing, such as those seen in ivories zucchini and the intestinal lining [9]. Sometimes, uncontrolled battery cycle events that result from cancer cell mutations attack those batteries without damaging normal cells. Cytotoxic medicines have a rather broad spectrum of activity, which makes them a harsh and generalised pattern of perspective that can only be sustained for certain conditions [10].

Humility-suppressing genes and oncogenes

Cancer development is regulated by two gene groups. The initial group of genes are called oncogenes, and they play a role in a variety of cell functions, including the division of batteries [11]. A normal battery, however, becomes a cancer cell when these genes are overexpressed. However, a different group of genes called tumour suppressor genes blocks the development of the cancer cell's batteries through various means. In cancer cells, tumour suppressor genes are not expressed as much as oncogenes [12]. Good targets for cancer therapy are oncogenes and their products [13]. Topoisomerases, which unwind the DNA during replication, are one example of an enzyme that is engaged in the cell district and is another alternative [14]. When used differently, naturally occurring products can offer therapeutic products that compete with various targets in cancer cells [15].

Anti-cancer medications made from plants

• Though originally native to Madagascar, the samples utilised to identify vincristine and vinblastine were procured in the Philippines and Jamaica. Vinorelbine and vindesine are recent examples of vinca alkaloids that are semi-synthetic [16]. These are mainly used alone or in conjunction with other chemotherapeutic medications to treat a variety of malignancies. Lymphomas, leukaemia’s, testicular cancer, lung cancer, and Kaposi's sarcoma are among the malignancies that are treated with VLB. In specifically, acute lymphocytic leukaemia in children, VCR had demonstrated effectiveness against leukaemia [17].

• Derivatives of podophyllotoxin: Plants in the Podophyllaceae family, especially Podophyllum peltatum Linn. and Podophyllum emodii, have a long history of medicinal use, including the treatment of skin malignancies and warts. Native Americans have utilised Podophyllum peltatum as a "cancer" treatment [18]. The discovery in the 1940s that treating venereal warts topically with an alcohol solution made from the dried roots (known as podophyllin) stimulated attention. The top cytotoxic medicinal ingredients, known as podophyllotoxins, were discovered and initially isolated in 1880, but their precise composition could not be determined until the development of spectroscopic methods in the 1950s [19]. During this time, other closely related podophyllotoxins, such as lignans, were also discovered and entered clinical trials, however they had mixed results [20].

• Allium sativum (allicin): In India, allium sativum, often known as garlic or lasun, is used to treat a wide range of illnesses. The adult component of raw garlic is allicin, and ajoene is produced when allicin is rearranged [21]. Human primary fibroblasts, a long-lasting, non tumorgenic battery queue created from a baby hamster kind battery, and a tumorgenic lymphoid cell queue derived from a Burkitt lymphoma have all been used to investigate the substance's cytotoxic effect. The wire with a cytotoxic effect included 2 g/ml–50 g/ml [21]. Numerous animal models have shown that some organo-sulfur compounds from garlic, such as S-allylcysteine, can slow the growth of chemically induced and transplantable growth. Garlic has been given orally (250 mg/kg, three times per week) to male wistar rats. Significantly muted the absence of carcinomas in the beginning phase and their diminished occurrence in the locus commencement phase19 indicate that 4-nitro quinoline-1-oxide-induced tongue carcinogenesis. Thus, the use of garlic may be advantageous in protecting against specific types of cancer [21].

• Andrographis Paniculata: The isolation of 14 chemicals during phytochemical analysis of the ethanol portion of Andographis paniculata's aerial parts has been reported. The bulk of them are flavonoids and labdane triterpenoids [22]. The cytotoxic activities of these compounds have been assessed against several battery lines, and it has been discovered that these isolates have a powerful tumour inhibitory activity against all studied battery lines [23]. The Andrographis paniculata methanol extract was separated, and the dichloromethane fraction was said to have three active components [24]

• The scientific name for graviola is Annona muricata. Acetogenins are a significant status of medicinal component discovered in graviola. The graviola plant's fruit, seeds, leaves, and bark all contained acetogenins [25]. According to preliminary study, acetogenins prevent the production of adenosine triphosphate, which blocks the pump that removes cancer medications from the cell and increases the effectiveness of chemotherapy. Acetogenin may also be a viable chemotherapeutic, particularly for cancer that is drugresistant [26]. When graviola is consumed orally, symptoms resembling Parkinson's disease can develop. According to reports, several specific acetogenins are hazardous for a number of cancer battery types, including human lymphoma, dweller cancer, rising carcinoma, pancreatic carcinoma,prostatic adenocarcinoma, and colonic adenocarcinoma [27].

• Cannabis sativa: Research conducted in vitro on this component of ceramic suggests that it may be able to inhibit human heart cancer cells and stop their proliferation. Animal survival was shown to be greatly boosted in tests when marijuana was added to malignant brain tumours [28]. Cannabis sativa has cannabinoids as its active ingredients. Patients with cancer benefit from the palliative effects of cannabinoids and their derivatives by experiencing less nausea, sickness, and hunger stimulation [29]. By altering crucial cell-signalling pathways, these substances have also been shown to have anti-tumour effects in animal models and battery artifice [30].

• Chinese mythology suggests that Nervelia fordii, a medicine, can treat several ailments. The anticancer potential of Nervilia fordii extracts in petroleum ether and ethyl acetate has been examined in mouse models [31]. When given to the cancerbearing mice S-180 and H-22, both extracts shown strong anticancer properties and increased the lifespan of the mice [32]. The results of this study indicate that Nervilia fordii may be used as a cancer-inhibiting agent, and more research is needed to identify the drug's active ingredient [33]

• Salvia Miltiorrhiza: Tanshinone-I was isolated from the herbal remedy Salvia miltiorrhizae and studied as an intercellular adhesion molecule [34]. Tanshinone-I may be an effective treatment for breast cancer, according to a study that found it may have an anticancer effect on heart cancer cells. Tanshinone II-A, obtained from Salvia miltiorrhiza, caused apoptosis that was connected to the proteolytic domain of a key component in the apoptotic battery elimination mechanism [35].

• The antimutagenic activity of Terminalia chebula in Salmonella typhimurium has been established [36]. It is a wellspring of hydrolysable tannins. The fruits of Terminalia chebula contain phenols that suppress the growth of cancer, including chebulinic acid, tannic acid, and ellagic acid [37].

The powdered fruits of Terminalia chebula and its acetonecontaining bark have been shown to exhibit antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties [38].

• Zingiber officinale: Zingiber officinale's ethanol pathway was examined to learn more about its anticancer properties in a model of skin carcinogenesis. Mice's skin was pre-applied with Zingiber officinale ethnol course, which significantly inhibited 12-o’-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-Acetate (TPA)- induced start of epidermal ODC, cyclooxygenase, and lipoxygenase activity and ODC mRNA phrase in a dosedependent manner. TPA-induced epidermal edoema and hyperplasia were significantly inhibited by preapplying Zingiber officinale ethanol segment to mouse substance. In long-term research, topical administration of Zingiber officinale ethanol clause 30 minutes before each TPA submission to 7, 1, 2-dimethylbenz anthracene-induced mice resulted in a marked defence against compassion growth occurrence and its multiplicity [39]. Researchers have also looked into the in vitro effects of ginger's natural bioactives, namely ginger excerpt and 6-gigerol [40].


In conclusion, medicinal herbs keep people's fool and sap in good condition while also curing many ailments, including cancer, without producing harm. The development of natural cancer treatments from medicinal plants has been significant. This study has provided a few anti-cancer herbs. These plants have strong immune modulation and antioxidant properties that promote anticancer activity. Finally, this page educates readers on the usage of anticancer medicinal herbs that are of foreign origin by people all around the world. Utilizing cutting-edge anticancer medicines derived from medicinal plants is also significant. The challenge of preventing the development of chemoresistance is very difficult without this early warning mechanism. In a perfect world, one's attitude would be moulded to fit them from the beginning; this is numerous forms of cancer have an anticancer effect.


Awards Nomination

Editors List

  • Prof. Elhadi Miskeen

    Obstetrics and Gynaecology Faculty of Medicine, University of Bisha, Saudi Arabia

  • Ahmed Hussien Alshewered

    University of Basrah College of Medicine, Iraq

  • Sudhakar Tummala

    Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering SRM University – AP, Andhra Pradesh




  • Alphonse Laya

    Supervisor of Biochemistry Lab and PhD. students of Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemis


  • Fava Maria Giovanna


Google Scholar citation report
Citations : 208

Onkologia i Radioterapia received 208 citations as per Google Scholar report

Onkologia i Radioterapia peer review process verified at publons
Indexed In
  • Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Scimago
  • MIAR
  • Euro Pub
  • Google Scholar
  • Medical Project Poland
  • Cancer Index
  • Gdansk University of Technology, Ministry Points 20