Research Article - Onkologia i Radioterapia ( 2023) Volume 17, Issue 8

Association between knowledge about chemotherapy for patients with cancer and demographic characteristic in Al-Nassiriah city

Muna Awayed Sanam* and Khalida M. Khudur2
 
1Department of Adult Nursing, College of Nursing, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
Department of Fundamentals Nursing, College of Nursing, University of Baghdad, Iraq
 
*Corresponding Author:
Muna Awayed Sanam, Department of Adult Nursing, College of Nursing, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq, Email: muna.uwayid2102m@conursing.uobaghdad.edu

Received: 25-Jul-2023, Manuscript No. OAR-23-108126; Accepted: 19-Aug-2023, Pre QC No. OAR-23-108126 (PQ); Editor assigned: 27-Jul-2023, Pre QC No. OAR-23-108126 (PQ); Reviewed: 10-Aug-2023, QC No. OAR-23-108126 (Q); Revised: 17-Aug-2023, Manuscript No. OAR-23-108126 (R); Published: 24-Aug-2023, DOI: -

Abstract

To find out the relationship between cancer patients’ knowledge and demographic characteristics of age, gender, and educational level in the Cancer Specialist Centre in Al-Haboubi Teaching Hospital and Al-Nasiriyah Teaching Hospital (Cancer blood diseases). A quasi-experimental design is conducted through the application of a pre-test and post-test approach for the study and control groups from a non–probability (purposive) sample of (110) patients treated at the Blood Disease and Oncology Centre Each group contains (50) patients as control, study groups, and 10 patients are pilot study. An instrument is constructed that is comprised of two parts; the first part consists of demographic data for a study sample which is consisted of (5) items of age, gender, occupation education, and marital status The second part is multiple choice questions related to patients' knowledge which is consisted of three domain Validity and reliability of the instrument are determined through a pilot study. The findings of the study show that there are no statistically significant differences between knowledge about chemotherapy for patients with Cancer with their age and gender (p-value>0.05). While statistically significant differences between knowledge about chemotherapy for patients with Cancer with their educational level. Based on the findings of this research, the researcher has reached the following In the pre-test and posttest, there is a significant relationship between cancer patients’ knowledge and demographic characteristics of age and gender, but no significant relationship was found between patients’ knowledge of education level.

Keywords

chemotherapy, cancer, oncology, nursing

Introduction

Globally, there were 17.0 million new instances of cancer and 9.5 million cancer-related deaths in 2018, according to estimates from the International Agency for Research on Cancer [1]. Simply because of population expansion and aging, it is anticipated that by 2040 there would be 16.3 million cancer deaths and 27.5 million new cancer cases worldwide, Due to the rising frequency of risk factors like smoking, poor food, physical inactivity, and fewer pregnancies in economically developing nations, the burden will likely grow in the future [1].

Many methods, including surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, are used to treat cancer. Local treatments like surgery and radiotherapy are used to get rid of or kill minor tumours or shrink big ones. In contrast, chemotherapy is a comprehensive strategy that employs medications to slow or stop tumour growth, restrict or stop the spread of cancer cells, and/or relieve cancer symptoms like pain (palliative chemotherapy). Chemotherapy medications modify cellular activity during one or more phases of the cell cycle, having an impact on both healthy and malignant cells [2].

The side effects related to cancer chemotherapy depend on the type of medication, dose, recurrence, term of organization, and whether they are utilized in combination. It can be partitioned into short-term and long-term side effects. The short-term impacts incorporate emesis, diarrhoea, untimely menopause, infertility, nausea, weight loss, stomatitis, etc. whereas the long-term impacts include alopecia, secondary danger, myelo-suppression, neuropathy, anaemia, and weakness [3]. Although chemotherapy was presented in the 1940s, patients need information approximately chemotherapy and its side effects, causing a burden on quality of life. Subsequently, the information concerning chemotherapy is very much fundamental among cancer patients as well as in the normal population [4]. To protect the patient's life, nurses who care for those receiving chemotherapy need to possess a particular understanding. Therefore, where carelessness or error occurs during chemotherapy treatment, it may harm the patient's life. Consequently, both the patient and the nurse can greatly benefit from teaching sessions on this topic [5]. This study recommended providing them with scientific resources related to chemotherapy nursing intervention [6].

Methods

The purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between cancer patients’ knowledge and demographic characteristics of age, gender, and educational level in -patients admitted to the Cancer Specialist Centre in Al-Haboubi Teaching Hospital and Al-Nasiriyah Teaching Hospital (Haematology unit).

A quasi-experimental design was with the application of a pretest/post-test approach for the study group and control group after implementation of an educational program. Data collection was done at two times: baseline data (before any intervention was provided to the study group) and 21 days after giving the educational program (in the study group). The period of the study was from December. A non-probability (purposive) sample had been selected to obtain representative and accurate data. The size of the sample was (110) for patients with cancer who received chemotherapy the sample was divided into two groups each one consisting of (50) patients as the control group, the study group, and (10) in the pilot study. The study group was exposed to an educational program, while the control group was not.

The study instrument consists of three parts including the following:

Part 1: The Demographic and Socio-Demographic Characteristics of patient’s cancer (age, gender, level of education, occupation, educational level, address, marital status, residency).

Part II: The patient's medical information: to be filled in by the researcher. The second part of the questionnaire was comprised of eight items.

Part III: Knowledge about Chemotherapy for Patients with Cancer. The part of questionnaire consists of three sections for each part, a group of items All items measured on three-point Liker scale was used for rating the item) I know, not Certain, and I don't know). Reliability coefficients of the studied questionnaire concerning internal consistency (Alpha Cronbach) = 0.748 good.

Results

Table 1 show that thirty-five percent of the sample between 49 years-59 years, more than half in the study group between 49 years-59 years, and less than half of the control study between 39 years-48 years. The study group had a female gender ratio of 86.0%, and the control group had a male ratio of 66%. Both The study group and the control group had 54.0%, 68.0%, respectively. According to educational level showed that the study group was equally percent between don't read or write and graduated from primary school, while the control group and total study sample were have graduated from primary school.

Tab. 1. Descriptive statistic of sample demographical characteristics of both study and control group n=100 patients

Variables Classification Study Group   Control Group   Total %
F % F % F
Age/years 19 years-28 years 4 8 9 18 13 13
29 years-38 years 6 12 4 8 10 10
39 years-48 years 10 20 22 44 32 32
49 years-59 years 27 54 8 16 35 35
60 years and more 3 6 7 14 10 10
Total 50 100 50 100 100 100
Gender Male 7 14 17 34 24 24
Female 43 86 33 66 76 76
Total 50 100 50 100 100 100
Marital Status Single 8 16 12 24 20 20
Married 27 54 34 68 61 61
Absolute 4 8 1 2 5 5
Widower 6 12 0 0 9 9
Separated 5 10 3 6 5 5
Total 50 100 50 100 100 100
Educational Level Don’t Read or Write 11 22 12 24 23 23
Read and Write 7 14 2 4 9 9
Graduated from Primary School 11 22 18 36 29 29
Graduated from Secondary School 9 18 8 16 17 17
Graduated from College 6 12 6 12 12 12
Graduated from institute 6 12 3 6 9 9
Graduated from a Master's or PhD 0 0 1 2 1 1
Total 50 100 50 100 100 100
Freq: frequency, %: Percentage

Table 2 shows that there are no statistically significant differences between knowledge about chemotherapy for patients with Cancer with their age (p>0.05) when analysed by ANOVA.

Tab. 2. Distribution and differences of effectiveness of education program on knowledge about chemotherapy for patients with cancer their age

Knowledge Patients No. Pre-test (Mean ± S.D.) Post 2 (Mean ± S.D.)
Age (Years) 19 years-28 years 4 1.6619 ± .15168 3.2214 ± .69979
29 years-38 years 6 1.6992 ± .27331 2.8452 ± .04946
39 years-48 years 10 1.9286 ± .47744 3.0190 ± .44722
49 years-59 years 27 1.8635 ± .26340 2.9434 ± .22154
60 years and more 3 1.4762 ± .14968 2.8524 ± .06442
Total 50 1.8174 ± .32114 2.9635 ± .31927
Statistics   F =1.841, P = 0.138 F =1.057, P = 0.389
x̄ ± S.D.=Arithmetic Mean x ̄ and Std. Dev. (S.D.), No. = Number of frequencies, F = Fisher test , d.f. = degree of freedom, P = probability value.

Table 3 shows that there are no statistically significant differences between knowledge about chemotherapy for patients with Cancer with their gender (p>0.05) when analysed by ANOVA. Table 4 shows that there are statistically significant differences between knowledge about chemotherapy for patients with Cancer with their educational level (p>0.05) when analysed by ANOVA.

Tab. 3. Distribution and differences of effectiveness of education program on knowledge about chemotherapy for patients with cancer their gender

Knowledge Patients

No.

Pre-test Mean  ±  S.D.

Post 2 Mean  ±  S.D.

Age (Years)

Male

7

1.7463 ± 0.25743

2.8395 ± 0.07731

Female

43

1.8290 ± 0.33147

2.9837 ± 0.33924

Total

50

1.8174 ± 0.32114

2.9635 ± 0.31927

Statistics

 

F=0.395 P=0.533

F=1.235 P=0.272

x̄ ± S.D.=Arithmetic Mean x ̄ and Std. Dev. (S.D.), No. = Number of frequencies, F = Fisher test, d.f. = degree of freedom, P=probability value

Tab. 4. Distribution and differences of effectiveness of education program on knowledge about chemotherapy for patients with cancer with their educational level

Knowledge Patients No. Pre-test Mean  ±  S.D. Post 2 Mean  ±  S.D.
Educational Level Don’t Read or Write 11 2.9126 ± 0.24375 1.6476 ± 0.26929
Read and Write 7 2.8816 ± 0.08906 1.7177 ± 0.14351
Graduated from Primary School 11 2.8567 ± .04126 1.7719 ± 0.25261
Graduated from Secondary School 9 3.2032 ± 0.60884 1.7423 ± 0.27624
Graduated from College 6 3.0214 ± 0.34633 2.2056 ± 0.43311
Graduated from institute 6 2.9310 ± 0.07245 2.0532 ± 0.25317
Total   2.9635 ± 0.31927 1.8174 ± 0.32114
Statistics   F =1.541 P = 0.197 F = 4.452 P =0 .002

Discussions

Results revealed that the majority of the study group age was within the age group 49 years-59 years accounted for (54.0%), while the control group age 39 years-48 years accounted for (44.0%), So the most of total study sample age group was in the age group 49 years-59 years accounted for (35.0%) among all study sample show that highest percentage 30.0% in the age group of (50-59) years in the study group with mean age (44.8 ± 11.1), while the control group 30.0% of the sample are the age group with mean age (48.4 ± 11.6 ) [7].

Relatively to the gender of the study sample were female consider a major percent of the overall study and control group and also within total were females accounted for (76.0%) of all study samples. Regarding marital status, most of the study and control groups were married, and then also within total were married among all study samples, like, most of the sample are females (68%) in the study group and (60%) in the control group [8].

Unlike who Al�Jubouri et al., showed that 52.8% of the study sample was male. Nearly, half of the study sample. Concerning marital status most of the study and control groups were married and then also within total were married among all study samples. Also Handi et al., the marital status the majority were married 39(65%) [9,10].

The educational level that showed the study group equal percent between Don't read or write and graduated from primary school 22.0, while the control group and total study sample were have graduated from primary school 36.0, 29.0 respectively, supported by the study done by Sattar and Al-Mallah, Graduated from Primary School (n=98; 39.2%) A study done by (n=151: 69.9%) [11]. In this table 2 and 3 (shows that there are no statistically significant differences between knowledge about chemotherapy for patients with Cancer with their age (p-value>0.05), P=0.389 and gender (p-value> 0.05, P=0.272. The result is supported by the study done [12]. Findings showed there was a no-significant relationship between patients' knowledge and their demographic data where p=0.494. Finally the result in table 4 shows that there are statistically significant differences between knowledge about chemotherapy for patients with cancer with their educational level.

Conclusion

The study confirms that there is a lack of patients with cancer knowledge about chemotherapy in pre-test but all are improving in post-test after the applied education program. The study revealed that there are statistically no significant differences between knowledge about chemotherapy for patients with cancer with their age and gender, while there are statistically significant differences between knowledge about chemotherapy for patients with cancer with their level of educational. The researcher recommends an intensive population-based education program can be conducted to improve cancer patients' knowledge of chemotherapy.

References

Awards Nomination

Editors List

  • Prof. Elhadi Miskeen

    Obstetrics and Gynaecology Faculty of Medicine, University of Bisha, Saudi Arabia

  • Ahmed Hussien Alshewered

    University of Basrah College of Medicine, Iraq

  • Sudhakar Tummala

    Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering SRM University – AP, Andhra Pradesh

     

     

     

  • Alphonse Laya

    Supervisor of Biochemistry Lab and PhD. students of Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemis

     

  • Fava Maria Giovanna

     

Google Scholar citation report
Citations : 200

Onkologia i Radioterapia received 200 citations as per Google Scholar report

Onkologia i Radioterapia peer review process verified at publons
Indexed In
  • Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Scimago
  • SCOPUS
  • EBSCO A-Z
  • MIAR
  • Euro Pub
  • Google Scholar
  • Medical Project Poland
  • PUBMED
  • Cancer Index
  • Gdansk University of Technology, Ministry Points 20