Phytochemical effects of soy isoflavones consumption on vitamin D and calcium levels in pre and postmenopausal women with hormone positive HER2 neu negative breast cancer


Author(s): Ibtissam Abood Jabber*, Asia Selman Abdullah and Haider Saadoon Qasim Alhilf

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in females, and it is ranked at level one in all cancer types list. Isoflavones are phenolic compounds with a chemical structure as same as estrogen which binds to hormone receptors. Calcitriol regulates proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, inflammation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis of BC. This study aimed to investigate the association of vitamin D and calcium levels with isoflavones in the premenopausal and postmenopausal women with hormone-positive Her2 neu negative BC treated with anti-estrogens and vitamin D. A randomized, interventional comparison study was carried out from October 2021 to May 2022. This study enrolled 120 BC, Iraqi women, with hormonal positive Her2 neu negative. The blood sample was collected in a gel tube and the serum is extracted as quickly as feasible. Then transferred into a new clean disposable plain tube to be utilized to assess the vitamin D3, and calcium for 3 months (at baseline, at a low dose, and a high dose of isoflavone). Their mean age was (47.66 ± 10.606) years with a median age of 46 years. The mean age of premenopausal women was (37.91 ± 3.476) years, while for postmenopausal females was (55.2 ± 8.12) years, with a highly significant difference (t=12.996; P<0.0001). There was a highly significant difference (t=3.175; P=0.003) between the BSA of post-menopause and pre-menopause women (1.78 ± 0.135 and 1.69 ± 0.143) Kg/m2, respectively. All postmenopausal women underwent surgical intervention (72, 100%), while thirty-nine premenopausal women were exposed to surgery, with a statistically significant difference (t=2.348; P=0.024).Four premenopausal women received Anastrazole (Arimidex) whereas 40(90.9%) received Tamoxifen, however, 62(86.1%) postmenopausal women received Arimidex, while the rest 10(13.9%) received Tamoxifen with highly statistically significant differences (t=-11.358-; P< 0.0001). According to oneway ANOVA analysis, the Ca2+ levels were raised significantly in both arms in particular during the administration of low and high doses of soya isoflavone (P<0.0001; 0.02). Moreover, the mean vitamin D concentrations at a low dose (35 mg) of soya isoflavone and a high dose (70 mg) of soya isoflavone in premenopause women were lower than in post-menopause women (23.48 ± 7.453 IU vs. 30.53 ± 10.981 IU; 26.7 ± 8.101 IU vs. 35.1 ± 9.395 IU), respectively. There was a high statistically significant difference (P <0.0001; P <0.0001), respectively. According to one-way ANOVA analysis, the vitamin D levels were raised significantly in both arms in particular during the administration of the low and high doses of soya isoflavone (P =0.046; <0.0001). Age, weight, comorbid, and positive family history of married women are significantly different between pre-menopause and post-menopause. Calcium shows different ranges, mostly non-significant after isoflavone consumption whereas vitamin D shows significant changes.

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Awards Nomination

Editors List

  • Prof. Elhadi Miskeen

    Obstetrics and Gynaecology Faculty of Medicine, University of Bisha, Saudi Arabia

  • Ahmed Hussien Alshewered

    University of Basrah College of Medicine, Iraq

  • Sudhakar Tummala

    Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering SRM University – AP, Andhra Pradesh




  • Alphonse Laya

    Supervisor of Biochemistry Lab and PhD. students of Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemis


  • Fava Maria Giovanna


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