An anatomical study of orbital dimensions and its utility in orbital reconstructive surgery


Author(s): Zeba Khan, Gulrez Nadeem*, Humera Khan and Al-Moutassem Billah Khair

Objectives: The orbit is a craniofacial structure and the orbital cavity contains the visual apparatus, including the eye ball and associated muscles, vessels, nerves, lacrimal apparatus, and fascial strata. A large number of traumatic, congenital, vascular, neoplastic and endocrine disorders may adversely affect the orbit. In these cases, the measurements of orbital index, bony orbital volume, orbital perimeter and a description of the orbital shape may have crucial clinical applications for estimating craniofacial asymmetry, the severity of the injury, and probable complications in preoperative planning and in postoperative assessment. Importance of Craniofacial measurements and study of orbital morphology is important for ethno-racial and sex discrimination, craniofacial surgery and anthropological assessment. The relationship between the height and breadth of the orbit varies amongst various human populations.

Materials and Methods: This study compares orbital dimensions and orbital index in the Maharashtra population. 60 dried adult human skulls (120 orbits) irrespective of sex were randomly selected from the Anatomy Department in Grant Government Medical College, Mumbai, India. The orbital height and breadth were measured and orbital Index was calculated. The data were statistically analysed for means, Standard Deviation (SD) (significant at p≤ 0.05).The other parameters measured were orbital volume, orbital perimeter and orbital opening area.

Results: The mean orbital height for the left and right sides were 3.575 ± 0.329 cm and 3.580 ± 0.301 cm while, their orbital breadth were 4.008 ± 0.362 and 4.008 ± 0.326 mm respectively. The mean orbital index of 120 orbits was 89.342 ± 3.987. The bony orbital volume of 120 orbits was measured to be 25.595 ± 1.119 ml and Orbital opening area was found to be 11.339 ± 1.799 cm while the orbital rim perimeter is 13.15 ± 1.343 cm.

Conclusion: The Maharashtrian population belongs to the Megaseme category. The existing data is not enough on Maharashtrian population, so it is necessary to study the morphometry of the orbit in these populations. Positive correlation was observed between volume of orbits and the orbital opening area. These findings may play a key role in orbital reconstruction.

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Editors List

  • Prof. Elhadi Miskeen

    Obstetrics and Gynaecology Faculty of Medicine, University of Bisha, Saudi Arabia

  • Ahmed Hussien Alshewered

    University of Basrah College of Medicine, Iraq

  • Sudhakar Tummala

    Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering SRM University – AP, Andhra Pradesh




  • Alphonse Laya

    Supervisor of Biochemistry Lab and PhD. students of Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemis


  • Fava Maria Giovanna


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