Development and validation of a nomogram for predicting the overall survival of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma of the head of the pancreas


Author(s): Zhilong Liu, Haohui Yu, Mingrong Cao, Jiexing Li and Ke Cai*

Background: The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a nomogram to predict the Overall Survival (OS) of patients with Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma of the Head of the Pancreas (PDAC-HP).

Methods: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, we collected patients with PDAC-HP in the United States between 2004 and 2015. Patients were randomly divided into training set and validating set at a ratio of 7:3. The training set is used to develop a nomogram for predicting OS. These indicators such as the C index, the area under curve of the receiver operating characteristic, and calibration plots were used to evaluate the prediction accuracy of the nomogram.

Results: A total of 33,893 patients with PDAC-HP over 20 years old were diagnosed between 2004 and 2015. Using multivariable Cox regression analysis, we identified eight risk factors that were associated with OS, such as age at diagnosis, sex, marital status at diagnosis, race, AJCC staging, surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A nomogram was constructed based on these variables. Compared with the AJCC staging system, the nomogram has a better C index and AUC in the training set and validatiing set. The calibration plots indicated that the nomogram was able to accurately predict the OS of patients with PDAC-HP at 1, 3, and 5 years.

Conclusions: We developed and validated a nomogram, and predicted the OS of patients with PDAC-HP at 1, 3, and 5 years. Compared with the AJCC staging system, the nomogram we constructed has better performance.

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Awards Nomination

Editors List

  • Prof. Elhadi Miskeen

    Obstetrics and Gynaecology Faculty of Medicine, University of Bisha, Saudi Arabia

  • Ahmed Hussien Alshewered

    University of Basrah College of Medicine, Iraq

  • Sudhakar Tummala

    Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering SRM University – AP, Andhra Pradesh




  • Alphonse Laya

    Supervisor of Biochemistry Lab and PhD. students of Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemis


  • Fava Maria Giovanna


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